WPA版美式台球比赛规则

Section 1. The Regulations 第一章通则

[Editorial comment on the U.S. English version: The masculine gender has been used for simplicity of wording and is not intended to specify the gender of the players or officials.] [为简单起见,本篇规则中涉及到第三人称时仅使用代表男性的词。在实际情况下,这些词同样适用于女性。]

1. Administrative Discretion通则的自由裁量

These regulations address dress requirements, protests, scheduling issues, and other items that are not part of the actual Rules of Play but need to be regulated for the individual event. Some aspects of applying the regulations vary from tournament to tournament, such as the number of sets in a match and who breaks after the first rack at nine ball. The management of an event is entitled to enforce regulations for the event. These Regulations do not have the same force as the Rules; the Rules have priority.本通则涵盖了诸如着装要求、申诉程序、赛程安排以及其它未包括在比赛规则中但又需在具体赛事中作出规定的事宜。有一部分通则在具体应用时根据赛事的不同而有所变化,例如单场局数、九球比赛里的开球顺序等。赛事组委会有权保证通则在赛事中的执行。通则的效力比不上规则,两者冲突时规则优先。

2. Exceptions to the Rules 规则的特例

The actual Rules of Play may not be altered unless a specific waiver is issued by the WPA Sports Director or other WPA official for the individual event. A written explanation of any rules change should be made available at the players’ meeting.除非得到WPA体育主管或是派驻赛事的WPA官员的许可,比赛规则不得随意更改。对规则更改须有书面说明,并在赛前的球员会议中下发。

3. Dress Code 着装规范

Each player’s attire must always meet the level of the competition and be clean, proper and in good condition. If an athlete is unsure about the legality of his attire, the athlete should approach the tournament director before the match and ask whether the attire is legal. The tournament director has the final say with regards to the legality of attire. In exceptional circumstances, the director may permit a player to compete in violation of the dress code e.g. when airline luggage has been misplaced. A player may be disqualified for dress code violation.每位选手着装必须合乎比赛的等级,并且做到干净整洁。如果选手不确定自己的着装是否符合要求,可在赛前向赛事总监确认。赛事总监对着装规范与否有最终决定权。在遇到特殊情况时(比如航班托运行李遗失),赛事总监可以允许违反着装规范的选手参加比赛。违反着装规范的选手可能因此被取消比赛资格。

If there is no announcement before the event, the WPA dress code is assumed. The following are the current requirements for World Championship and World Tour events.如果在比赛前没有宣布着装规范,则默认沿用WPA的着装规范。以下列举的是目前世锦赛和巡回赛所使用的着装规范。

3.1 Men 男子选手

Men may wear either a long sleeve shirt and button-down vest or a regular collared shirt or polo shirt of any color. Shirt or polo shirt must be tucked in. It must be in a good condition and clean. No T-shirts are allowed. The shirt must have at least a short sleeve.男子选手上身可以穿长袖衬衫搭配有纽扣的马夹、有领衬衫或者任何颜色的polo衫。衬衫或polo衫必须束在裤子里。上衣必须干净整洁。不允许穿圆领T恤。上衣必须有袖子。

Dress pants will be clean and in good condition and may be of any color. Denim/blue jeans of any color are forbidden even though a jeans design is allowed. 裤子必须是干净整洁的正装裤,颜色不限。不允许穿着牛仔裤或牛仔面料的裤子。

Shoes must be elegant dress shoes that fit in the outfit. Sneakers and sandals are not allowed. Sports shoes with a dark top of leather or leather-like material are allowed but are subject to the tournament director’s discretion.鞋子须是与身上装束相配的正装鞋。不允许穿球鞋和拖鞋。在赛事总监的允许下可以穿深色皮质或仿皮质运动鞋。

3.2 Women 女子选手

Women may wear a shirt, an elegant top, a dress, a blouse or a polo shirt which is covering the shoulders. T-shirts are not permitted. 女子选手可穿着不露肩的正装衬衫、正装上装、连衣裙、休闲衬衫或者polo衫。不允许穿圆领T恤。

Dress pants will be clean and in good condition and may be of any color. Denim/blue jeans of any color are forbidden even though a jeans design is allowed. Female athletes may wear a skirt which must cover the knees.裤装必须是干净整洁的正装裤,颜色不限。不允许穿着牛仔裤或牛仔面料的裤子。女子选手可以穿裙子,但长度必须超过膝盖。

Shoes must be elegant dress shoes that fit in the outfit. Sneakers and sandals are not allowed. Sports shoes with a dark top of leather or leather-like material are allowed but are subject to the tournament director’s discretion.鞋子须是与身上装束相配的正装鞋。不允许穿球鞋和拖鞋。在赛事总监的允许下可以穿深色皮质或仿皮质运动鞋。

4. Balls Rack Template 摆球纸

The Ball Rack Template can be used for the disciplines: 8-ball, 9-ball and 10-ball. In 14/1 it′s not allowed to use the Ball Rack Template.摆球纸可用于下列项目的比赛:8球,9球和10球。在14/1比赛里不允许使用摆球纸。

4.1 Positioning of the Ball Rack Template 摆球纸的位置

The table must be marked before the tournament has started. A Vertical line must be drawn for the positioning of the Ball Rack Template. This line must be long enough to pass through the top and bottom holes on the Ball Rack Template. 赛前必须在台面上对摆球纸的位置进行标记 - 画一条长度须足以穿过摆球纸顶端和底端的开孔的垂直线。

4.2 Removing of the Ball Rack Template 摆球纸的移除

After the break, the Ball Rack Template must be removed by the referee from the table as soon as possible without disturbing any of the balls. If a referee is not present and there are balls obstructing the removal of the Ball Rack Template, the opponent must be the one to remove the Ball Rack Template. If there are no obstructions, the player at the table may remove the Ball Rack Template without the opponent interfering.开球后,裁判会在不影响到其它球的情况下尽快将摆球纸移除。如果没有裁判执裁,并且有球妨碍到了移除摆球纸,则必须由对手来将摆球纸移除。如果没有球形成妨碍,场上的球员可自行将摆球纸拿开,无需对手介入。

With or without a referee present, the Ball Rack Template can only be removed if not more than 2 balls are an obstruction in its removal. Exception to this rule applies if 1 or more balls are frozen and obstructing the removal, in this case the Ball Rack Template stays in place until such time that the frozen balls are no longer an obstacle in the removal of the Ball Rack Template.不管是否有裁判执裁,只有在影响摆球纸移除的球不超过两颗的情况下,才能移除摆球纸。此外,若有一颗或更多球相贴并影响到了摆球纸的移除,摆球纸将保持原位不动,直到这些贴球不再影响到摆球纸的移除为止。

With the removal of the Ball Rack Template, the referee or opponent may use markers in the form of ball markers or chalk blocks which are at their disposal to mark the obstructing balls. The Ball Rack Template must be placed in its required spot away from the playing area including the rails and the balls placed back into their original position.在移除摆球纸时,裁判或者对手可以使用手边的定位器或者巧粉块来标注障碍球的位置。移除后的摆球纸应放在指定的位置,不得放在台面和库边。移除时动过的球须放回原位。

4.3 Specification for Ball Rack Template 摆球纸的规格

Ball Rack template should be made of a plastic material, no thicker than 0.14 mm and shouldn’t affect the table in any way. Template may not be glued on the playing surface.摆球纸应采用塑料材质制成,厚度不超过0.14毫米,不能对台面的上球造成任何影响。摆球纸不能用胶黏在台面上。

5. Playing with an “Area” Referee “区域”裁判制

It may be that a tournament is being played with “area” referees who are each responsible for several tables and there is no referee constantly at each table. In this case, the players are still expected to observe all the rules of the game. The recommended way to conduct play in this situation is as follows. 有些比赛采取“区域”裁判制,即每个裁判负责多张球桌,而不是单一执裁一场比赛。在这种情况下,球员仍须遵守所有的比赛规则。具体建议如下:

The non-shooting player will perform all of the duties of the referee. If, prior to a particular shot, the shooting player feels that his opponent will not be able to properly judge the shot, he should ask the area referee to watch the shot. The non-shooting player may also ask for such attention if he feels that he is unable or is unwilling to rule on the shot. Either player has the power to suspend play until he is satisfied with the way the match is being refereed. 由非击球选手承担裁判的职责。如果在一次击球前,击球选手觉得对手无法对此次击球作出正确判断,他可以要求区域裁判来观察这次击球。同样,当非击球选手觉得不能或者不愿作出判断时也可以寻求裁判的帮助。任何一方选手都有权暂时停止比赛,直到其觉得这一杆可在合适的裁判方式下击打时为止。

If a dispute arises between two players in an unrefereed match, and the area referee is asked to make a decision without having seen the cause of the dispute, he should be careful to understand the situation as completely as possible. This might include asking trusted witnesses, reviewing video tapes, or reenacting the shot. If the area referee is asked to determine whether a foul occurred and there is no evidence of the foul except the claim of one player while the other player claims that there was no foul, then it is assumed that no foul occurred.当选手之间出现争议时,区域裁判需要在尽可能全面了解当时的情况后谨慎地作出判罚,这个过程可以包括询问其他目击者、回放比赛录相以及重新演示之前的击打过程等。当裁判被要求裁定是否发生犯规时,如果除了选手单方面质疑外并无其它证据表明发生了犯规且对方选手也否认了有犯规的出现,那么视为没有犯规。

6. Penalizing Unsportsmanlike Conduct 对违背体育精神行为的惩罚

The rules and regulations give the referee and other officials considerable latitude in penalizing unsportsmanlike conduct. Several factors should be considered in such decisions, including previous conduct, previous warnings, how serious the offense is, and information that the players may have been given at the Players’ Meeting at the start of the tournament. In addition, the level of competition may be considered since players at the top levels can be expected to be fully familiar with the rules and regulations, while relative beginners may be unfamiliar with how the rules are normally applied.对于违背体育精神行为的处罚给裁判和赛事官员留有比较宽泛和灵活的处理空间。判罚时应考虑多个因素,诸如选手之前的行为表现、先前对其的警告、行为的严重性以及赛前运动员会议上是否已经传达过相关事宜等等。此外,比赛的级别也会作为考虑因素,因为顶级水平的运动员都应该非常熟悉规则,而相对初级的选手可能并不清楚规则。

7. Protest Ruling 申诉规则

If a player needs a decision to be taken, the first person to be contacted is the referee. The referee will form his decision by all means that seem suitable to him. If the player wants to protest against that ruling, he may contact the head referee and after that the tournament director. In any regular tournament, the tournament director’s decision is binding and final. In the WPA World Championships, there may be a further appeal to the WPA Sports Director, if he is present. A deposit of $100 from the protestor is required for such an appeal and it will be forfeited in case of an adverse final decision.如果选手有需要裁定的事宜,首先应与裁判沟通,裁判会作出最恰当的判定。如果选手对裁判的裁决有异议,可以向裁判长申诉。再有异议可向赛事总监申诉。在正规比赛中,赛事总监具有最终决定权。在WPA世锦赛里,如果WPA体育总监在场,则由他担任更高一级的申诉对象。申诉者须缴纳100美元申诉费用,如果申诉失败该费用不被退还。

A player is allowed to ask for a reconsideration of a factual decision by the referee only one time. If he asks for reconsideration of the same matter a second time, it will be treated as unsportsmanlike conduct.一名选手就相同问题只能提出一次申诉,如果他就同一个问题第二次提出申诉,该举动将会被视为违背体育精神的行为并受到相应处罚。

8. Instructions for Referees 裁判员指南

The referee will determine all matters of fact relating to the rules, maintain fair playing conditions, call fouls, and take other action as required by these rules. The referee will suspend play when conditions do not permit fair play. Play will also be suspended when a call or ruling is being disputed. The referee will announce fouls and other specific situations as required by the rules. He will answer questions as required by the rules on matters such as foul count. He must not give advice on the application of the rules, or other points of play on which he is not required by the rules to speak. He may assist the player by getting and replacing the mechanical bridge. If necessary for the shot, the referee or a deputy may hold the light fixture out of the way.裁判须明察比赛时发生的所有同规则相关的事实,维护公平竞赛环境,判罚犯规,以及根据规则采取规定的行动。当目前的环境无法满足公平竞赛要求时,裁判将暂停比赛。当判罚有争议时,比赛也应该暂停。在口头上,裁判员会对犯规以及规则上规定的特殊情形进行宣告。他会回答规则上要求作答的问题,例如当前犯规累计次数等等。他不能给球员任何“合理利用规则”的建议,也不能回答其它规则上没有要求作答的问题。他可以协助选手拿出或放回架杆。当有需要时,裁判或第三方代表还可移动或暂持影响到击球的照明设备。

When a game has a three-foul rule, the referee should note to the players any second foul at the time that it occurs and also when the player who is on two fouls returns to the table. The first warning is not required by the rules but is meant to prevent later misunderstandings. If there is a scoreboard on which the foul count is visible to the players, it satisfies the warning requirement.当比赛采用连续三次犯规的规则时,裁判应在第二次犯规发生时提醒选手。当已有两次连续犯规的选手回到台上击球时,裁判员也必须提醒选手。前面的那次提醒在规则上并没有要求,但这样做可以有效避免后续发生争议。如果选手可见的记分牌上有连续犯规的计数,则视为已经作出提醒。

9. Referee’s Responsiveness 裁判对提问的合理回应

The referee shall answer players’ inquiries regarding objective data, such as whether a ball will be in the rack, whether a ball is behind the head string, what the count is, how many points are needed for a victory, if a player or his opponent is on a foul, what rule would apply if a certain shot is made, etc. When asked for a clarification of a rule, the referee will explain the applicable rule to the best of his ability, but any misstatement by the referee will not protect a player from enforcement of the actual rules. The referee must not offer or provide any subjective opinion that would affect play, such as whether a good hit can be made on a prospective shot, whether a combination can be made, or how the table seems to be playing, etc.对于选手提出的基于客观事实的问题,裁判应给予回答,例如球是否在三角框范围内、球是否在开球线后、目前比分、还需要多少分能够获胜、选手或对手是否犯规、在某种情况下适用的规则等。当被要求对规则进行说明时,裁判将尽自己所能对适用的规则进行解释。裁判的表述即使有误,也不能被球员当作免予被处罚的理由。裁判绝不能表达任何足以影响赛事的主观意见,例如告诉选手下一击怎样才能避免犯规、告诉选手是否能打组合球、分析目前台面上的形势等等。

10. 8-Ball Addendum 美式8球的补充事项

If the groups have been determined and the player mistakenly shoots at and pockets a ball of the opponent’s group, the foul must be called before he takes his next shot. Upon recognition by either player or the referee that the groups have been reversed, the rack will be halted and will be replayed with the original player executing the break shot.当球组已确定,如果一名选手错误地击打对方球组中的球,该犯规必须在他进行下一次击打前被宣判。当任一选手或裁判意识到球组已被双方错误地交换击打时,该局即刻停止并由原开球选手重新开球。

11. Restoring a Position 复原球的位置

In any case a position of balls needs to be amended it is solely the referee’s duty and responsibility to perform this task. He may form his opinion by any means he considers appropriate at the time. He may consult one or both players on that, however, the particular player’s opinion is not binding and his judgment can be amended. Each involved player has the right to dispute the referee’s judgment just once, but after that it is the referee’s discretion to restore the ball or balls. 当球的位置需要改变时,唯一有权执行该工作的是裁判。裁判可使用任何他认为合理的方法来对位置进行判断。他可以寻求一方或双方选手的意见。但是,选手提出的意见并无最终约束力,裁判依然可对此作更改。任一选手对裁判的判断只能提出一次异议,在那之后,球复原的位置由裁判最终决定。

12. Acceptance of Equipment 对比赛器材的默认接受

After the tournament or a particular match has been started, the player has no right to question the quality or legality of any equipment provided by the Tournament Organizer unless supported by the referee or the tournament director; any protests must be made beforehand.在一次巡回赛或一次单独比赛开始后,球员无权置疑比赛组织者所提供器材的质量及权威性,除非裁判或者赛事总监亦持有相同意见。相关抗议必须在比赛正式开始前提出。

13. Clearing Pockets 清理球袋

For the ball to be considered pocketed, it must meet all the requirements described in Rule 5.3Ball Pocketed. Although the task of clearing pockets of balls lies within the referee’s description of duties, the ultimate responsibility for any occurrence of fouls as a result of such misadministration always rests with the shooter. If the referee is absent, for example in the case of an area referee, the shooter may perform this duty himself, providing he makes his intention clear and obvious to the opponent.判断一颗球是否已入袋,是看其是否符合规则[5.3Ball Pocketed 球入袋]中描述的所有条件。虽然清理球袋是裁判的职责,但若因球袋未及时清理而造成的犯规,最终责任还须由击球选手承担。如场边无裁判执裁,击球选手可自行清理球袋,但该意图须事先让对手知晓。

14. Time Out 暂停

Unless specified otherwise by the tournament organizer, each player is allowed to take one time out of five minutes during matches played over 9 (for eight ball) and 13 (for nine ball) games. If matches are shorter there is no time out. To exercise his right to a time out the player must:除非赛事主办方另有规定,否则每名球员在总局数超过9局(美式8球)或13局(美式9球)的比赛里可请求一次时长5分钟的暂停。如果总局数比上述局数少,则没有暂停。在请求暂停时,球员须:

(1) inform the referee of his intention and, 告知裁判员他的意图,并且

(2) make sure the referee is aware of the fact and marks it on the score sheet and, 确认裁判已经明白他的请求,并在比赛记录表上登记,并且

(3) make sure the referee marks the table for suspended play. (The standard procedure will be to place a cue stick on the table.)确保裁判已经将球台标记为暂停。(标准的做法是将球杆放在球台上)

The opponent must remain seated as during normal play; should he involve himself in an action other than standard match-playing activities it will be considered exercising his time out and no further time out will be allowed.对手须同在平常比赛中一样坐在自己的座位上。如果他此时有超越正常比赛行为范畴之外的动作,则视为他已经在行使自己暂停的权力,后面他再请求暂停将不被允许。

The time out at eight ball and nine ball is taken between racks and play is suspended.美式8球和美式9球比赛里暂停只能在局间进行。

The player taking the time out should remember that his actions must be within the spirit of the game and if he acts otherwise, he is subject to a penalty under the Unsportsmanlike Conduct.请求并行使暂停权力的选手在暂停期间的行为须符合比赛的精神,若有违反,可能会因违反体育精神而被处罚。

If a player is suffering from a medical condition, the tournament director may choose to adjust the number of time outs.如果选手因健康原因感到不适,赛事总监可酌情调整暂停的次数。

15. Subsequent Break Shots 开球次序

For deciding who will break in racks after the first, in games such as nine ball, the tournament management may choose a procedure different from the standard one listed in the Rules. For example, the winner may break or the players may alternate “serves” of three consecutive breaks.对于第一局以后的比赛的开球顺序的选择,在有些项目里(诸如美式9球)赛事主办方可能选择与规则里所列的不同的方法。比方说,可能采用胜方冲球,或者双方每三局交换一次“发球权”。

16. Rack at Nine Ball 美式9球比赛的摆球

As stated in Rule 2.2, balls other than the one and nine are placed randomly in the rack and should not be set in any particular order during any rack. If the referee is not racking, and a player believes that his opponent is intentionally placing balls within the rack, he may bring this to the attention of a tournament official. If the tournament official determines that the player is intentionally positioning balls in the rack, the player will be given an official warning to refrain from doing so. Once warned, should the player continue with intentional positioning of balls in the rack, he shall be penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct.关于美式9球比赛的摆球,规则[2.2Nine Ball Rack 美式9球比赛的摆球]里已经有所说明,除1号球和9号球外其它目标球都是随机摆放在球堆中,在任何一局比赛里,他们的排列都不应有规律性。如果比赛不是由裁判摆球,而选手认为对手摆球时故意按照某种规律进行操作,他可以将情况反映至赛事官员处。如果赛事官员认定球员在摆球时故意按一定规律来进行摆放,应正式警告该球员,同时要求其必须立即停止此种行为。如果在受到警告后该球员仍然故意按规律摆球,这将被认定为是违背体育精神的行为,球员会被按章处罚。

17. Open Break Requirements 对于开球的额外要求

The tournament management may set additional requirements on the break shot on games that require an “open” break such as nine ball. For example, it may be required to drive three balls above the head string or pocket them.在那些要求开球时尽量将球堆“开散”的项目(例如美式9球比赛)里,赛事主办方可对开球作额外的要求。例如,可以要求在开球时至少有三颗球过线或入袋。

18. The Three Point Break Rule 三球过线开球规则

(1) On the break shot, a minimum of three object balls must either be pocketed, or touch the head string line, or a combination of both. For example, if one object ball is pocketed, then at least two object balls must touch the head string line; or if two object balls are pocketed, then at least one object ball must touch the head string line. 开球时,必须至少有三颗目标球入袋或者触碰开球线。比方说,如果有一个目标球入袋,那么至少还需要有两颗目标球触碰开球线;如果有两颗目标球入袋,则至少还需要有一颗目标球触碰开球线。

To touch the head string line means that the edge of the object ball must reach (break) the string line. 触碰开球线,是指球在球台上的垂直投影须碰到开球线或者与开球线相交。

(2) If a player fails to meet the requirements in (1), but otherwise makes a legal break, the incoming player has the choice to accept the tables as is, or hand the shot back to his opponent. 如果开球本来是合法的,仅仅是因为没能达到第(1)条中的要求而成为了非法开球,则接下来上场的选手可以选择接受台面状况继续击打,或者将击球权交回给对手。

(3) In accepting the table as is, the incoming player is not permitted to play a "push-out", he must play a legal shot to the ball on.如果接下来上场的选手选择接受台面状况继续击打,那么他不能选择打推杆,只能正常击打合法目标球。

(4) If the table is handed back to the breaker, the breaker is permitted to play a push-out. If so, his opponent will then have the choice to either play the shot, or hand it back. 如果接下来上场的选手选择了将击球权交还给冲球选手,冲球选手可以选择是否击打推杆。如果击打了推杆,他的对手接下来可以选择继续击打,或者将击球权交回。

(5) If a player fails to meet the requirements of (1), but otherwise makes a legal break and pockets the 9 ball, the 9 ball is reposted before the next shot is played. 如果开球本来是合法的,但仅仅是因为没能达到第(1)条中的要求而成为了非法开球,并且同时九号球入袋,那么九号球应立即被取出放回点位,随后比赛继续。

The three point rule must be present on all WPA ranking 9-ball events, together with tapping or ball rack.WPA所有的9球排名赛都必须在比赛里采用三球过线开球规则,并使用摆球纸或摆球架。

19. Deflecting Cue Ball on Opening Break 开球时干扰母球

It may be that the player miscues on a break shot and tries to prevent the cue ball from following its normal path by deflecting it with his cue stick or by some other means. This practice and other similar practices are absolutely forbidden under the unsportsmanlike conduct rule, Rule 6.17b). Players must never intentionally touch any ball in play except with a forward stroke of the cue tip on the cue ball. The penalty for such a foul will be determined by the referee according to the unsportsmanlike conduct guidelines in Rule 6.17. 有时选手在开球时不小心滑杆,并且下意识地用球杆或者其它方式干扰母球使其偏离原来的行进路线。这种行为以及其它相似的行为是完全被禁止的,请参考[6.17b)]下面的规定。除了正常击球时杆头击打母球外,球员在其它任何时候都严禁故意触碰比赛中的球。对于此种行为采用何种判罚由裁判员根据6.17下面规定的准则进行选择。

20. Shot Clock 限时击球

A shot clock may be requested at any time during a match by a tournament official or either player involved in that match. The tournament director or other appointed official decides whether to use a shot clock or not. Should a shot clock be introduced, both players will be “on the clock” and there will be an official timekeeper for the duration of the match. As a recommendation, players will have 35 seconds per shot with a warning when 10 seconds remain. Each player will be allowed one 25-second extension during each rack. The shot clock will be started when all balls come to rest, including spinning balls. The shot clock will end when the cue tip strikes the cue ball to initiate a stroke or the when player’s time expires from the shot clock. If a player runs out of time, it will be a standard foul. After the opening shot the time cap may be extended but cannot exceed the 60 seconds.比赛进程中赛事官员或者任何一方球员均可要求对击球进行计时。是否采纳这一建议由赛事总监或是其他指定官员来决定。如果决定采用计时,那么比赛双方球员每次击球均纳入“限时”范围,计时的任务由官方指定的人员来完成。推荐的做法是,每一方选手每次击球有35秒的时间,在还剩10秒的时候会有一次提醒。每局球双方各有一次25秒的延时机会。在所有的球停下来并且停止转动时,开始计时。当杆头因击打而接触母球时、或者球员击球超过规定时限时结束计时。如果球员一杆击球用时超过时限,按一般犯规处理。在开完球后的这一杆可适当延长击球的限时,但不能超过60秒。

21. Cue ball fouls only 仅计母球犯规

If there is no referee presiding over a match, it may be played using cue ball fouls only. That is, touching or moving any ball other than the cue ball would not be a foul unless it changes the outcome of the shot by either touching another ball or having any ball, including the cue ball, going through the area originally occupied by the moved ball. If this does not happen, then the opposing player must be given the option of either leaving the ball where it lies or replacing the ball as near as possible to its original position to the agreement of both players. If a player shoots without giving his opponent the option to replace, it will be a foul resulting in cue ball in hand for the opponent.如果比赛没有裁判执裁,也可以采用仅计母球犯规的规则。也就是说,触碰或者移动除母球外的其它球并不算犯规,除非这影响到了这一杆击球的结果 - 即受干扰的目标球又触碰了其它球、或者是包括母球在内的任何其它球碰到或通过了这颗被干扰的球原本所占位置。如果不算犯规,对手此时可以选择台面球保持当前位置并且比赛继续、或是将受干扰的球尽可能地放回原来位置(此位置须经双方认可)。如果击球选手没有让对手作出上述选择而继续击打,这是一个犯规,由对手从手中球开始击打。

22. Late Start 迟到

Players must be at the table and ready to play their assigned match at the appointed match time. If a player is late for his appointed match time, he will have fifteen minutes to report to his assigned table ready to play or he will lose the match. It is recommended to announce after five minutes a first call for the player, after ten minutes a second call and after fourteen minutes a final “one minute” warning. A stricter requirement may be used for repeat offenders.选手必须在规定的比赛时间内到达球台并准备开始比赛。如果选手在规定时间后的15分钟依然未能到达球台并做好比赛准备,他将被判输掉这场比赛。推荐的做法是在规定时间过五分钟后,宣布一次警告,到第十分钟时宣布第二次警告。在第十四分钟时第三次警告并说明还有一分钟。对于反复迟到的选手,赛会可采用更严格的处罚办法。

23. Outside Interference 外界干扰

See Rule 1.9, Outside Interference. The referee should ensure that interference is prevented, for example by a spectator or a player on an adjacent table, and may suspend play as needed. Interference may be physical or verbal.参考规则[1.9Outside Interference 外部干扰]。裁判应避免比赛受外界的干扰,必要的时候甚至可以暂停比赛。干扰的来源通常是是观众或者邻桌选手。干扰的形式既有口头上的,也有行动上的。

24. Coaching 教练指导

It is permitted for a player to receive advice from a coach during a match. This should not be on a continuous shot-by-shot basis that changes the nature of the game. It is up to the referee and tournament management to set additional limits on this. A time out can be used to get coaching help. The coach should not approach the table. If the referee decides that the coach is interfering with or disrupting the match, he may direct the coach to stay away from the match.在比赛期间允许球员接受教练的指导。但选手正在连续击打时,不允许出现这种情况,以免影响到比赛的连贯性和公平性。裁判和赛事主办方有权对此条规定设置附加限制。在暂停期间,球员是可以接受教练指导的。教练不得接近比赛台面。如果裁判认为教练影响或干扰了比赛,他可以禁止其再在这场比赛里进行指导。

25. Act of God 不可抗拒因素

It may be that something unforeseen under these rules will occur during a match. In such a case, the referee will decide how to proceed in a fair manner. For example, it may be necessary to move a rack in progress to a different table, in which case a stalemate may be declared if a position cannot be transferred.比赛中可能会出现规则中未曾预料到的情况。此时裁判会决定如何按照公平竞赛的原则继续比赛。比方说,进行中的一局比赛可能需要移到另一张球台上进行,如果没法将球的位置完全复制准确,可能会按僵局来处置。

26. Remaining in Player’s Chair 非击球选手

The non-shooting player should remain in his designated chair while his opponent is at the table. Should a player need to leave the playing area during matches, he must request and receive permission from the referee. Should a player leave the playing area without the permission of the referee, it will be treated like unsportsmanlike conduct.

当对手在场上进行比赛时,非击球选手应该坐在其指定的座位上。在比赛期间,如果球员需要离开比赛区域,他必须征求并获得裁判的同意。如果在未经裁判允许的情况下离开比赛区域,此举将被视为违背体育精神的行为。

27. Split Hits 同时击中

If the cue ball strikes a legal object ball and a non-legal object ball at approximately the same instant, and it cannot be determined which ball was hit first, it will be assumed that the legal target was struck first.如果母球几乎是在同一时刻击中一颗合法目标球和一颗非合法目标球,并且难以判断先击中了那颗球时,则假设母球首先击中的是合法目标球。

28. Calling Frozen Balls 对贴球和贴库球的宣告

The referee should be careful to inspect and announce the status of any object ball that might be frozen to a cushion and the cue ball when it might be frozen to a ball. The seated player may remind the referee that such a call is necessary. The shooter must allow time for such a determination to be asked for and made, and may ask for the call himself.裁判应在目标球可能贴库或贴主球的情况下认真观察并作出宣告,选手可以在必要情况下提醒裁判对此类情况作出宣告。击球选手必须给予裁判充足的时间作出判定。

Section 2. The Rules of Play 比赛规则

1. General Rules 一般规则

The following General Rules apply to all the games covered by these rules except when contradicted by specific game rules. In addition, the Regulations of Pool Billiards cover aspects of the game not directly related to the game rules, such as equipment specifications and organization of events.以下的一般规则适用于所有比赛项目,除非某项目的规则与其有冲突。此外,美式台球通则部分涵盖了比赛规则没有直接提到的一些问题,例如器材的规格要求以及赛事的组织。

The games of Pool Billiards are played on a flat table covered with cloth and bounded by rubber cushions. The player uses a stick (pool cue) to strike a cue ball which in turn strikes object balls. The goal is to drive object balls into six pockets located at the cushion boundary. The games vary according to which balls are legal targets and the requirements to win a match.美式台球比赛在覆盖着台布的平整桌面上进行,桌面四周由胶质库边包围。球员依次使用球杆(美式球杆)击打母球撞击目标球。目的是将球打进处于库边位置的六个球袋。合法目标球的定义和赢得比赛的标准根据项目的不同而有所不同。

[Editorial comments on the U.S. English version: The masculine gender has been used for simplicity of wording and is not intended to specify the gender of the players or officials. The word “game” is used to refer to a discipline such as nine ball rather than a rack or a match.]

[为简单起见,本篇规则中涉及到第三人称时仅使用代表男性的词。在实际情况下,这些词同样适用于女性。“game”这词在本规则里主要指比赛项目(例如美式9球),而不是用于指一局比赛或一场比赛]

1.1 Player’s Responsibility球员的责任

It is the player's responsibility to be aware of all rules, regulations and schedules applying to competition. While tournament officials will make every reasonable effort to have such information readily available to all players as appropriate, the ultimate responsibility rests with the player.了解比赛所用的规则、通则以及赛程是球员的责任。虽然赛事官员会根据需要尽量将上述信息传达给所有的球员,但了解这些信息的最终责任还是在球员身上。

1.2 Lagging to Determine Order of Play 比球决定开球顺序

The lag is the first shot of the match and determines order of play. The player who wins the lag chooses who will shoot first. The referee will place a ball on each side of the table behind the head string and near the head string. The players will shoot at about the same time to make each ball contact the foot cushion with the goal of returning the ball closer to the head cushion than the opponent. A lag shot is bad and cannot win if the shooter’s ball:作为比赛中的第一次击球,比球的作用是决定比赛顺序。赢得比球的球员获得开球选择权。裁判会将两颗球分别放置在球桌两侧开球线后面的位置。双方球员须在几乎同一时间击球并使其触碰底库后返回,球静止后更靠近顶库的一方获得比球胜利。如果出现非法比球,球员将失去该次赢得比球的机会。非法比球是指是指球员击出的球:

a) crosses the long string; 越过纵轴进入对手区域;

b) contacts the foot cushion other than once;未碰底库或者触碰底库超过一次;

c) is pocketed or driven off the table;球入袋或离开台面;

d) touches the side cushion; or 触碰两侧库边;或者

e) the ball rests within the corner pocket and past the nose of the head cushion. In addition, a lag will be bad if any non-object-ball foul occurs other than 6.9 Balls Still Moving. 球停留在角袋口,并且已经越过顶库的拐角。此外,当出现任何除[6.9Balls Still Moving 球未静止就击球]之外的非目标球犯规时,比球也是非法的。

The players will lag again if:如果出现下列情况,双方重新进行比球:

a) a player’s ball is struck after the other ball has touched the foot cushion;当一方的球已经触碰底库后,另一方才开始击球;

b) the referee cannot determine which ball has stopped closer to the head cushion; or 裁判无法判断静止后哪颗球更接近顶库;

c) both lags are bad.双方都出现非法比球。

1.3 Player’s Use of Equipment球员对器材的使用

The equipment must meet existing WPA equipment specifications. In general, players are not permitted to introduce novel equipment into the game. The following uses, among others, are considered normal. If the player is uncertain about a particular use of equipment, he should discuss it with the tournament management prior to the start of play. The equipment must be used only for the purpose or in the manner that the equipment was intended. (See 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct.)器材必须符合目前WPA的器材规格要求。一般来说,球员不可以在比赛中采用一些新奇的器材。以下提及的是一些器材的正常使用方式。如果选手对器材的某种使用方式有疑问,应在赛前向赛事组委会咨询相关事宜。器材必须按其本身设计用途及使用方法来进行使用。

a) Cue Stick – The player is permitted to switch between cue sticks during the match, such as break, jump and normal cues. He may use either a built-in extender or an add-on extender to increase the length of the stick.球杆 - 比赛中允许球员选用不同的球杆,例如冲杆、跳杆或打杆。可以使用内置的或者外接的延长器来增加球杆的长度。

b) Chalk – The player may apply chalk to his tip to prevent miscues, and may use his own chalk, provided its color is compatible with the cloth.巧粉 - 球员可以在杆头上擦巧粉防止滑杆。允许使用与台布颜色相配的自备巧粉。

c) Mechanical Bridges – The player may use up to two mechanical bridges to support the cue stick during the shot. The configuration of the bridges is up to the player. He may use his own bridge if it is similar to standard bridges. 架杆 - 在击球过程中,球员可使用至多两种架杆来支撑球杆。架杆的组合方式由球员自己决定。选手可以使用自备的架杆,但架杆的式样须与正常架杆相似。

d) Gloves – The player may use gloves to improve the grip and/or bridge hand function. 手套 - 球员可以戴帮助握杆或手架的手套。

e) Powder – A player is allowed to use powder in a reasonable amount as determined by the referee.滑石粉 - 球员允许使用适量(是否适量由裁判决定)的滑石粉。

1.4 Spotting Balls 置球到点位

Balls are spotted (returned to play on the table) by placing them on the long string (long axis of the table) as close as possible to the foot spot and between the foot spot and the foot rail, without moving any interfering ball. If the spotted ball cannot be placed on the foot spot, it should be placed in contact (if possible) with the corresponding interfering ball. However, when the cue ball is next to the spotted ball, the spotted ball should not be placed in contact with the cue ball; a small separation must be maintained. If all of the long string below the foot spot is blocked by other balls, the ball is spotted above the foot spot, and as close as possible to the foot spot.置球到点位(将球放回桌面)是指将其在不移动任何障碍球的情况下放置在置球点与底库之间的纵轴线上且尽量接近置球点。如果要重置的球无法放到置球点,则应将球与障碍球相贴(如果可能的话)。但如果障碍球是母球,那么重置的时候不能使球与母球相贴,中间应有很小的一个空隙。如果整条置球点与底库之间的置球线都被其它球覆盖,重置球应当被放置于置球点与顶库之间的纵轴线上并尽量接近置球点。

1.5 Cue Ball in Hand 手中球

When the cue ball is in hand, the shooter may place the cue ball anywhere on the playing surface (see5.1Parts of the Table) and may continue to move the cue ball until he executes a shot. (See definition 5.2 Shot.) Players may use any part of the cue stick to move the cue ball, including the tip, but not with a forward stroke motion. In some games and for most break shots, placement of the cue ball may be restricted to the area behind the head string depending on the rules of the game, and then 6.10 Bad Cue Ball Placement and 6.11 Bad Play from Behind the Head String may apply. 当出现手中球时,选手可将母球放置在台面上的任何地方(参考5.1),并可以在执行击球动作前继续移动母球(参考5.2)。选手可以使用球杆的任何部分移动母球,包括杆头,但不得有向前的击球动作。在某些项目中,大多是开球时,母球的摆放位置限制在开球线后的区域,这取决于比赛采用的规则。此时可能会用到规则6.10母球放置位置错误和6.11线后球的非法击打。

When the shooter has the cue ball in hand behind the head string and all the legal object balls are behind the head string, he may request the legal object ball nearest the head string to be spotted. If two or more balls are equal distance from the head string, the shooter may designate which of the equidistant balls is to be spotted. An object ball that rests exactly on the head string is playable.当击打线后手中球时,如果所有合法目标球都在开球线后,选手可以要求裁判将最靠近开球线的那颗合法目标球重置到点位。如果两颗或两颗以上的合法目标球离开球线的距离相等,选手可指定重置其中的一颗球到点位。恰好停留在开球线上的目标球是可以被击打的。

1.6 Standard Call Shot 指球定袋

In games in which the shooter is required to call shots, the intended ball and pocket must be indicated for each shot if they are not obvious. Details of the shot, such as cushions struck or other balls contacted or pocketed are irrelevant. Only one ball may be called on each shot.在要求指球定袋的比赛项目中,只要不是显而易见的情况,选手都必须在击球前指出要打入袋的球和目标球袋。具体击打的细节,比方说通过库边反弹、碰别的球或者别的球入袋等等,都无需指出。每次击球只能指定一个球。

For a called shot to count, the referee must be satisfied that the intended shot was made, so if there is any chance of confusion, e.g. with bank, combination and similar shots, the shooter should indicate the ball and pocket. If the referee or opponent is unsure of the shot to be played, he may ask for a call.在指球定袋规则下,裁判判定击球是否合法,是看球员是否作出了其意图中的击打。所以一旦出现可能发生争议的局面,如翻袋,组合球或类似情况等,击球选手须指出要击打的球和要入的袋。如果裁判和对手并不确定击球选手的意图,可以要求其进行指定。

In call shot games, the shooter may choose to call “safety” instead of a ball and pocket, and then play passes to the opponent at the end of the shot. Whether balls are being spotted after safeties depends on the rules of the particular game.在指球定袋的比赛项目里,击球选手除了指球定袋外,还可以宣告击打“安全球”,打完这一杆后击球权将交给对手。安全击打时入袋的球是否重置到点位根据项目规则而定。

1.7 Balls Settling 球自行移动

A ball may settle slightly after it appears to have stopped, possibly due to slight imperfections in the ball or the table. Unless this causes a ball to fall into a pocket, it is considered a normal hazard of play, and the ball will not be moved back. If a ball falls into a pocket as the result of such settling, it is restored as closely as possible to its original position. If a settling ball falls into a pocket during or just prior to a shot, and this has an effect on the shot, the referee will restore the position and the shot will be replayed. The shooter is not penalized for shooting while a ball is settling. See also 5.3 Ball Pocketed. 一颗球在看上去已经静止后可能有微小的移动,这可能是球或球台有小的缺陷。除非这导致了球掉入袋中,否则视为比赛中出现的正常现象且移动的球将不会被摆回原位。如果因为这样的自行移动导致了球入袋,该球将尽量摆回其原来位置。如果在一次击球之前或击球过程中发生了这样的入袋情况,并且影响到了这次击球,则裁判将会把所有球摆回之前位置,这一杆重打。选手不会因为在球自行移动时进行击打受到处罚。参考5.3Ball Pocketed 球入袋。

1.8 Restoring a Position 恢复原位

When necessary for balls to be restored or cleaned, the referee will restore disturbed balls to their original positions to the best of his ability. The players must accept the referee’s judgment as to placement. 当需要将球复位或对球进行清洁时,裁判会尽量将所有动过的球都放回其原来的位置。选手必须接受裁判对放球位置的判断。

1.9 Outside Interference 外部干扰

When outside interference occurs during a shot that has an effect on the outcome of that shot, the referee will restore the balls to the positions they had before the shot, and the shot will be replayed. If the interference had no effect on the shot, the referee will restore the disturbed balls and play will continue. If the balls cannot be restored to their original positions, the situation is handled like a stalemate. 如果在击球过程中有外部干扰的发生并且影响到了此次击球的结果,裁判将把所有球放回到这一次击球之前的位置,由击球球员重新击球。如果该干扰对击球结果没有影响,裁判仅需重新放置受到干扰的球,比赛继续。如果球已无法复原,则按照僵局的方式处置。

1.10 Prompting Calls and Protesting Rulings 对判罚的异议和上诉规程

If a player feels that the referee has made an error in judgment, he may ask the referee to reconsider his call or lack of call, but the referee’s decision on judgment calls is final. However, if the player feels that the referee is not applying the rules correctly, he may ask for ruling by the designated appeals authority. The referee will suspend play while this appeal is in process. (See also part (d) of 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct.) Fouls must be called promptly. (See 6. Fouls.)如果球员认为裁判作出了错误的判断,他可以要求裁判重新考虑已作出的判罚、或是提醒裁判可能发生的漏判。随后裁判对此情形作出的判罚为最终判罚。但是,如果球员认为裁判没能按照规则作出正确判罚,他可以向指定机构就此提出申诉。在申诉进行期间裁判员应暂停比赛。(参考6.17d))在犯规发生时裁判须在第一时间作出宣告。(参考6Fouls犯规)

1.11 Concession 认输

If a player concedes, he loses the match. For example, if a player unscrews his jointed playing cue stick while the opponent is at the table and during the opponent’s decisive rack of a match, it will be considered a concession of the match. 如果选手认输,他将输掉这一场比赛。例如,在决胜局中对方正在场上击球的情况下,球员拧开球杆,此类行为被视为认输。

1.12 Stalemate 僵局

If the referee observes that no progress is being made towards a conclusion, he will announce his decision, and each player will have three more turns at the table. Then, if the referee determines that there is still no progress, he will declare a stalemate. If both players agree, they may accept the stalemate without taking their three additional turns. The procedure for a stalemate is specified under the rules for each game. 如果裁判发现局面毫无进展可能导致本局无法结束时,他可告知双方选手 -- 每方还各有三次击球机会,此后局面若依然没有改善,将判此局僵局。此时若双方球员同意,也可不进行这三次击球而直接判僵局。每个项目僵局的处理方式在各自规则里都有规定。

2. Nine Ball 美式9球

Nine ball is played with nine object balls numbered one through nine and the cue ball. The balls are played in ascending numerical order. The player legally pocketing the nine ball wins the rack.美式9球比赛用到的球是母球和1号至9号目标球。选手依照号码顺序由小至大击打台面上的目标球。合法将9号球击入球袋的选手获得该局比赛的胜利。

2.1 Determining the Break决定开球权

The player who wins the lag chooses who will break the first rack. (See 1.2 Lagging to Determine Order of Play.) The standard format is to alternate the break, but see Regulation15, Subsequent Break Shots. 比球获胜的选手可以选择第一局由谁开球。(参见1.2比球决定开球顺序)随后的球局一般采用轮流冲球,但具体规定可以参考通则15. 开球次序。

2.2 Nine Ball Rack美式9球比赛的摆球

The object balls are racked as tightly as possible in a diamond shape, with the one ball at the apex of the diamond and on the foot spot and the nine ball in the middle of the diamond. The other balls will be placed in the diamond without purposeful or intentional pattern.目标球被排列成菱形,1号球位于球堆最前端并被置于置球点上,9号球被置于菱形中心位置,其它球须无规则随意摆放,但所有球必须彼此相贴。

2.3 Legal Break Shot合法开球

The following rules apply to the break shot:开球时须遵守下列规则

a) the cue ball begins in hand behind the head string;母球为手中球并被放置在开球线后;

b) if no ball is pocketed, at least four object balls must be driven to one or more rails, or the shot is a foul; 如果没有获得进球,须至少有四个目标球触碰库边,否则开球犯规。

c) additionally, and only when Three Point Break Rule is used, if no ball is pocketed, three balls must cross the head string, or the break is considered ‘dry break’. (See Regulation 18, Three Point Break Rule.)此外,当采用三球过线开球规则时,如果没有进球,则需有三个球越过开球线,否则此次开球为“非法开球”。(参考通则18,三球过线开球规则)

2.4 Second Shot of the Rack – Push Out 每局中的第二杆-推杆

If no foul is committed on the break shot, the shooter may choose to play a “push out” as his shot. He must make his intention known to the referee, and then rules 6.2 Wrong Ball First and 6.3 No Rail after Contact are suspended for the shot. If no foul is committed on a push out, the other player chooses who will shoot next.如果开球时没有发生犯规,接下来有击球权的一方可以选择打推杆。在打推杆前选手须让裁判知道自己的意图。在击打推杆时,选手可以不遵守规则6.2母球先接触非法球和规则6.3碰撞后无球碰库。如果在击打推杆时没有发生犯规,另一方选手可以选择下一击由哪方击球。

2.5 Continuing Play继续击打

If the shooter legally pockets any ball on a shot (except a push out, see 2.4 Second Shot of the Rack – Push Out), he continues at the table for the next shot. If he legally pockets the nine ball on any shot (except a push out), he wins the rack. If the shooter fails to pocket a ball or fouls, play passes to the other player, and if no foul was committed, the incoming player must play the cue ball from the position left by the other player. 如果选手在一次击球中有球合法入袋(除非是在打推杆时,参考2.4每局中的第二杆-推杆),则他继续留在台面上进行下一杆的击打。如果他在一次击球中9号球合法入袋(除了打推杆外),则赢得该局比赛。如果选手在一次击球中没有球合法入袋,则换由对手在目前的台面情况下继续击打。如果选手在一次击球中犯规,则对手由手中球开始击打。

2.6 Spotting Balls 重置球到点位

If the nine ball is pocketed on a foul or push out, or driven off the table, it is spotted. (See 1.4 Spotting Balls.) No other object ball is ever spotted. 如果由于犯规或推杆造成9号球入袋或离开台面,则9号球应被重置回点位。(参考1.4置球到点位)任何其它的目标球入袋或离开台面均不重置。

2.7 Standard Fouls 一般犯规

If the shooter commits a standard foul, play passes to his opponent. The cue ball is in hand, and the incoming player may place it anywhere on the playing surface. (See 1.5 Cue Ball in Hand) 如果选手出现犯规,则对手获得击球权。此时,母球成为手中球,接下来上场的球员可将其放在台面任何地方开始击打。(参考1.5手中球)

The following are standard fouls at nine ball: 下列为9球比赛中的一般犯规:

6.1Cue Ball Scratch or off the Table 母球入袋或离开球台

6.2Wrong Ball First 母球先接触非法球。The first object ball contacted by the cue ball on each shot must be the lowest-numbered ball remaining on the table. 每次击球中母球首先碰撞的必须是台面上最小号码的目标球。

6.3No Rail after Contact 碰撞后无球碰库

6.4No Foot on Floor 击球瞬间双脚离地

6.5Ball Driven off the Table 球离开台面。The only jumped object ball that is spotted is the nine.当目标球离开台面时,唯一需要摆回的是9号球。

6.6Touched Ball 非法触碰球

6.7Double Hit / Frozen Balls 双击/贴球

6.8Push Shot 推击

6.9Balls Still Moving 球未静止就击球

6.10Bad Cue Ball Placement 母球放置位置错误

6.12Cue Stick on the Table 球杆置于桌面

6.13Playing out of Turn 上场击球顺序错误

6.15Slow Play 击球过慢

6.16Ball Rack Template Foul 摆球纸犯规

2.8 Serious Fouls 严重犯规

For 6.14 Three Consecutive Fouls, the penalty is loss of the current rack. For 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct, the referee will choose a penalty appropriate given the nature of the offense. 如果发生6.14提到的连续三次犯规,判犯规方输掉此局。对于6.17提到的违背体育精神的行为,裁判应根据犯规的性质来作出合适的判罚。

2.9 Stalemate 僵局

If a stalemate occurs the original breaker of the rack will break again. (See 1.12 Stalemate.) 如果出现僵局,由原开球选手重新开球。(参见1.12僵局)

3. Eight Ball 美式8球

Eight ball is played with fifteen numbered object balls and the cue ball. The shooter’s group of seven balls (one through seven or nine through fifteen) must all be off the table before he attempts to pocket the eight ball to win. Shots are called. 美式8球比赛用到的球是母球和1-15号目标球。当球员自己球组的七个球(1号-7号或者9号-15号)都已不在台面上后,方可尝试打进8号球从而赢得比赛。美式8球比赛执行指球定袋规则。

3.1 Determining First Break 决定开球权

The player winning the lag has the option to determine who has to execute the first break shot. (See 1.2 Lagging to Determine Order of Play.) The standard format is alternate break (See Regulation 15, Subsequent Break Shots.) 比球获胜的球员可以选择由谁在第一局开球(参考规则1.2比球决定开球顺序)。后续局标准的做法是轮流开球。(见通则15,开球次序)

3.2 Eight Ball Rack 美式8球比赛的摆球

The fifteen object balls are racked as tightly as possible in a triangle, with the apex ball on the foot spot and the eight ball as the first ball that is directly below the apex ball. One from each group of seven will be on the two lower corners of the triangle. The other balls are placed in the triangle without purposeful or intentional pattern.15个目标球被排列成三角形,三角形前端的第一颗球被置于置球点上,8号球放在第三排中间,三角形底边两端分别放置一颗不同球组的球,其它球随意摆放,但所有球必须彼此相贴。

3.3 Break Shot 开球

The following rules apply to the break shot 开球须执行下列规则:

a) The cue ball begins in hand behind the head string. 母球为线后手中球。

b) No ball is called, and the cue ball is not required to hit any particular object ball first. 开球无需指球定袋,母球可首先触碰任何一个目标球。

c) If the breaker pockets a ball and does not foul, he continues at the table, and the table remains open. (See 3.4 Open Table / Choosing Groups.) 如果有目标球入袋并且没有犯规,开球选手可继续下一杆击球,球局依然开放。(参考3.4 球局开放/选择球组)

d) If no object ball is pocketed, at least four object balls must be driven to one or more rails, or the shot results in an illegal break, and the incoming player has the option of 如果没有目标球入袋,须至少有四颗目标球触碰库边,否则是非法开球,接下来上场的选手可以选择:

1) accepting the table in position, or 接受目前的台面继续比赛,或者

2) re-racking and breaking, or 重新摆球,由自己冲球,或者

3) re-racking and allowing the offending player to break again. 重新摆球,由犯规方冲球。

e) Pocketing the eight ball on a legal break shot is not a foul. If the eight ball is pocketed, the breaker has the option of 在合法开球时8号球入袋并不犯规。如果8号球入袋,冲球选手可以选择:

1) re-spotting the eight ball and accepting the balls in position, or 8号球重置到点位,接受台面球的位置继续击打,或者

2) re-breaking. 重新冲球

f) If the breaker pockets the eight ball and scratches (see definition 8.6 Scratch), the opponent has the option of 如果选手开球时8号球入袋,并且母球也入袋(参考8.6 母球入袋),对手可以选择

1) re-spotting the eight ball and shooting with cue ball in hand behind the head string; or 8号球重置到点位,击打球线后手中球;或者

2) re-breaking. 重新冲球

g) If any object ball is driven off the table on a break shot, it is a foul; such balls remain out of play (except the eight ball which is re-spotted); and the incoming player has the option of 开球时只要有目标球离开台面就是犯规。离开台面的球不再放回(除了8号球会被摆回点位外)。接下来上场的选手可以选择:

1) accepting the table in position, or 接受目前台面所有球的位置,或者

2) taking cue ball in hand behind the head string. 击打线后手中球。

h) If the breaker fouls in any manner not listed above, the following player has the option of 如果开球时选手有其它上文未提及的犯规,接下来上场的选手可选择

1) accepting the balls in position, or 接受目前台面所有球的位置,或者

2) taking cue ball in hand behind the head string. 击打线后手中球。

3.4 Open Table / Choosing Groups 球局开放/选择球组

Before groups are determined, the table is said to be “open,” and before each shot, the shooter must call his intended ball. If the shooter legally pockets his called ball, the corresponding group becomes his, and his opponent is assigned the other group. If he fails to legally pocket his called ball, the table remains open and play passes to the other player. When the table is “open”, any object ball may be struck first except the eight ball. 在球组归属确定之前,球局处于开放状态。每次击球前,击球选手都必须指球定袋。如果选手合法打进指定的球,该球所属球组即归该选手,而另一个球组则归对手。如果他没能合法打进指定球,球局依然开放,对手获得击球权。在球局处于开放状态时,母球首先撞击的可以是除8号球以外的任何目标球。

3.5 Continuing Play 继续击打

The shooter remains at the table as long as he continues to legally pocket called balls, or he wins the rack by pocketing the eight ball. 只要选手合法击打指定球入袋,就能留在台面上继续击球,直到合法击入8号球获得该局胜利。

3.6 Shots Required to Be Called 指球定袋

On each shot except the break, shots must be called as explained in 1.6 Standard Call Shot. The eight ball may be called only after the shot on which the shooter’s group has been cleared from the table. The shooter may call “safety” in which case play passes to the opponent at the end of the shot and any object ball pocketed on the safety remains pocketed. (See 5.17 Safety Shot.)除了开球外,其它击球都使用指球定袋规则,具体参考1.6指球定袋。只有在台面上选手那个球组的球都没有了以后,才能在后续击球中指定击打8号球。击球选手可以选择进行安全击打,打完后球权交给对手。安全击打时入袋的目标球都不再取出(参考5.17击打安全球)。

3.7 Spotting Balls 重置球到点位

If the eight ball is pocketed or driven off the table on the break, it will be spotted or the balls will be re-racked. (See 3.3 Break Shot and 1.4 Spotting Balls.) No other object ball is ever spotted. 如果开球时8号球入袋或者离开台面,它将会摆回点位,或者是重新摆球。(参考3.3开球和1.4置球到点位)其它任何目标球入袋或离开台面都不予摆回。

3.8 Losing the Rack 输局

The shooter loses if he 发生下列情况,击球选手将输掉此局:

(a) pockets the eight ball and fouls.; 8号球入袋同时伴有犯规;

(b) pockets the eight ball before his group is cleared; 在自己的球组还没有从台面上消失前就打入8号球;

(c) pockets the eight ball in an uncalled pocket; or 8号球入非指定球袋;

(d) drives the eight ball off the table. 8号球离开台面。

These do not apply to the break shot. (See 3.3 Break Shot.)上述规则在开球时不适用。(参考3.3开球)

3.9 Standard Fouls 一般犯规

If the shooter commits a foul, play passes to his opponent. The cue ball is in hand, and the incoming player may place it anywhere on the playing surface. (See 1.5 Cue Ball in Hand.)如果选手出现犯规,则对手获得击球权。此时,母球成为手中球,接下来上场的球员可将其放在台面任何地方开始击打。(参考1.5手中球)

The following are standard fouls at eight ball:以下是8球比赛里的一般犯规:

6.1Cue Ball Scratch or off the Table 母球入袋或离开球台

6.2Wrong Ball First 母球先接触非法球The first ball contacted by the cue ball on each shot must belong to the shooter’s group, except when the table is open. (See 3.4Open Table / Choosing Groups ). 除非球局处于开放状态,否则母球首次碰撞的必须是属于选手的那组目标球。(参考3.4球局开放/选择球组)

6.3No Rail after Contact 碰撞后无球碰库

6.4No Foot on Floor 击球瞬间双脚离地

6.5Ball Driven off the Table 球离开台面 (See 3.7Spotting Balls.同时参考3.7重置球到点位)

6.6Touched Ball 非法触碰球

6.7Double Hit / Frozen Balls 双击/贴球

6.8Push Shot 推击

6.9Balls Still Moving 球未静止就击球

6.10Bad Cue Ball Placement 母球放置位置错误

6.11Bad Play from Behind the Head String 线后球的非法击打

6.12Cue Stick on the Table 球杆置于桌面

6.13Playing out of Turn 上场击球顺序错误

6.15Slow Play 击球过慢

6.16Ball Rack Template Foul 摆球纸犯规

3.10 Serious Fouls 严重犯规

The fouls listed under3.8Losing the Rack are penalized by the loss of the current rack. For 6.17Unsportsmanlike Conduct, the referee will choose a penalty appropriate given the nature of the offense. 对于3.8输局条目中所列犯规行为的处罚是输掉该局。对于6.17违背体育精神的行为,裁判应根据犯规的性质来作出合适的判罚。

3.11 Stalemate 僵局

If a stalemate occurs (see 1.12Stalemate), the original breaker of the rack will break again. 如果出现僵局,由原开球选手重新开球。(参考1.12僵局)

4. Ten Ball 美式10球

Ten ball is a call shot game played with ten object balls numbered one through ten and the cue ball. The balls are played in ascending numerical order and the lowest numbered ball must be contacted by the cue ball in order to establish a legal hit. If the ten ball is pocketed on a legal break shot, it will be re-spotted and the player continues with his inning. Only one ball may be called on each shot, except on the break shot where no ball may be called. (See 4.5Call Shots & Pocketing Balls). 美式10球是指球定袋的比赛,用到的球是母球和1号-10号目标球。选手按照号码顺序由小到大击打台面上目标球。如果合法开球时10号球入袋,它将会被摆回点位,开球选手继续下一杆击球。每次击打只能指定一个球,在开球时无需指球定袋。(参考4.5指球定袋)

4.1 Determining the Break 开球权的确定

The player who wins the lag chooses who will break the first rack. (See 1.2Lagging to Determine Order of Play) The standard format is to alternate the break, but see Regulation 15Subsequent Break Shots. 赢得比球的选手可以选择由谁首先开球。(参考1.2比球决定开球顺序)此后的标准做法是轮流开球,但可以参考通则15开球次序中的规定。

4.2 Ten Ball Rack 美式10球比赛的摆球

The object balls are racked as tightly as possible in a triangular shape, with the one ball at the apex of the triangle and on the foot spot and the ten ball in the middle of the triangle. The other balls will be placed in the triangle without purposeful or intentional pattern. (See Regulation4Balls Rack Template) 目标球被排列成三角形,一号球位于三角形顶点并被置于置球点上,10号球则放在三角形的中心位置。其它球须无规则随意摆放,但所有球必须彼此相贴。(参考通则4摆球纸)

4.3 Legal Break Shot 合法开球

The following rules apply to the break shot: 开球时须遵守下列规则

a) the cue ball begins in hand behind the head string; and 母球为线后手中球

b) if no ball is pocketed, at least four object balls must be driven to one or more rails, or the shot is a foul. 如果没有球入袋,须至少有四颗目标球触碰库边,否则是犯规。

(See Regulation 17Open Break Requirements 对于开球的额外要求) (参考通则17对于开球的额外要求)

4.4 Second Shot of the Rack – Push Out 每局中的第二杆 - 推杆

If no foul is committed on the break shot, the shooter may choose to play a “push out” as his shot. He must make his intention known to the referee, and then rules 6.2Wrong Ball First and 6.3No Rail after Contact are suspended for the shot. If no foul is committed on a push out, the other player chooses who will shoot next. The ten ball pocketed during a Push Out is re-spotted, without penalty. 如果开球时没有发生犯规,接下来有击球权的一方可以选择打推杆。在打推杆前选手须让裁判知道自己的意图。在击打推杆时,选手若触犯6.2母球先接触非法球和6.3碰撞后无球碰库均不算犯规。如果在击打推杆时没有发生犯规,另一方选手可选择下一击由哪方来击打。如果10号球在击打推杆时入袋不算犯规,将其放回点位即可。

4.5 Call Shots & Pocketing Balls 指球定袋

Whenever the shooter is attempting to pocket a ball (except the break) he is required to call shots, the intended ball and pocket must be indicated for each shot if they are not obvious. Details of the shot, such as cushions struck or other balls contacted or pocketed are irrelevant. 任何时候(除开球外)击球选手想要击球入袋时都须指球定袋。在形势并不显而易见时必须指出要打入袋的球和目标球袋。具体击打的细节,比方说通过库边反弹、碰别的球或者别的球入袋等等,都无需指出。

For a called shot to count, the referee must be satisfied that the intended shot was made, so if there is any chance of confusion, e.g. with bank, combination and similar shots, the shooter should indicate the ball and pocket. If the referee or opponent is unsure of the shot to be played, he may ask for a call.在指球定袋规则下,裁判判定击球是否合法,是看球员是否作出了其意图中的击打。所以一旦出现可能发生争议的局面,如翻袋,组合球或类似情况等,击球选手须指出要击打的球和要入的袋。如果裁判和对手并不确定击球选手的意图,可以要求其进行指定。

4.6 Safety 安全击打

The shooter, after the break at anytime may call “safety” which permits him to make contact with the legal object ball without pocketing a ball and end his inning. However, if the shooter pockets the legal object ball the incoming player has the option to play the shot as left, or hand it back to his opponent. (See 4.7Wrongfully Pocketed Balls which also applies during a safety.) 除了开球外,击球选手都可以宣告击打“安全球”。此时,他可以首先打到合法目标球但并不将其打进,而他的击球轮次随之结束。但是,如果合法目标球入袋了,接下来上场的选手可以选择按目前台面继续击打,或是将击球权还给对手。(规则4.7错误入袋的目标球在安全击打时同样适用)

4.7 Wrongfully Pocketed Balls 错误入袋的目标球

If a player misses his intended ball and pocket, and either makes the nominated ball in the wrong pocket or pockets another ball, his inning has finished and the incoming player has the option to take the shot as is, or hand it back to his opponent. 如果选手没能将指定球打入指定球袋,他的击球轮次结束。如果指定的球落入了非指定球袋或者是其它球有入袋,接下来上场的选手可以选择按目前台面继续击打,或是将击球权还给对手。

4.8 Continuing Play 继续击打

If the shooter legally pockets a called/nominated ball on a shot (except a push out, see 4.4Second Shot of the Rack – Push Out), any additional balls pocketed remain pocketed (except the ten ball; see 4.9Spotting Balls), and he continues at the table for the next shot. If a player nominates and legally pockets the ten ball prior to the ten ball being the last remaining ball, the ten ball is re-spotted and the shooter continues. If the shooter fails to pocket the called ball or fouls, play passes to the other player, and if no foul was committed, the incoming player must play the cue ball from the position left by the other player. 如果选手在一次击球中合法打进指定球(除击打推杆外,参考4.4每局中的第二杆 - 推杆),任何额外进的球都不会再摆回台面(除10号球外,参考4.9置球到点位提到的处理方式),该选手继续下一杆击打。如果10号球并非台面上最后一颗球时,选手指定10号球并将其打入袋中,10号球将被重置到点位,该选手继续下一杆击打。如果选手没能打进指定的球或者是犯规,对手获得击球权。如果没有犯规的发生,接下来上场的选手只能按当前台面情况继续击打。

4.9 Spotting Balls 置球到点位

If the ten ball is pocketed on a foul or push out, or accidentally in the wrong pocket, or driven off the table, it is re-spotted. (See 1.4Spotting Balls) No other object ball is ever spotted. 如果10号球因为犯规和推杆而入袋、意外落入非指定球袋、或是离开台面,都将被重置到点位。(参考1.4置球到点位)其它的球入袋或离开台面均不重置。

4.10 Standard Fouls 一般犯规

If the shooter commits a standard foul, play passes to his opponent. The cue ball is in hand, and the incoming player may place it anywhere on the playing surface. (See 1.5Cue Ball in Hand) 如果击球选手出现犯规,则对手获得击球权。此时,母球成为手中球,接下来上场的球员可将其放在台面任何地方开始击打。(参考1.5手中球)

The following are standard fouls at ten ball:以下是美式10球比赛里的一般犯规

6.1Cue Ball Scratch or off the Table 母球入袋或离开球台

6.2Wrong Ball First 母球先接触非法球The first object ball contacted by the cue ball on each shot must be the lowest-numbered ball remaining on the table. 每次击球母球首先触碰的球必须是当前台面上最小号码的目标球。

6.3No Rail after Contact 碰撞后无球碰库

6.4No Foot on Floor 击球瞬间双脚离地

6.5Ball Driven off the Table 球离开台面 The only jumped object ball that is spotted is the ten.离开台面的目标球唯一会被摆回到点位的是十号球

6.6Touched Ball 非法触碰球

6.7Double Hit / Frozen Balls 双击/贴球

6.8Push Shot 推击

6.9Balls Still Moving 球未静止就击球

6.10Bad Cue Ball Placement 母球放置位置错误

6.12Cue Stick on the Table 球杆置于桌面

6.13Playing out of Turn 上场击球顺序错误

6.15Slow Play 击球过慢

6.16Ball Rack Template Foul 摆球纸犯规

4.11 Serious Fouls 严重犯规

For 6.14Three Consecutive Fouls, the penalty is loss of the current rack. For6.17Unsportsmanlike Conduct, the referee will choose a penalty appropriate given the nature of the offense. 如果发生6.14三次连续犯规,犯规者将被判输掉该局。对于6.17违背体育精神的行为,裁判应根据犯规的性质来作出合适的判罚。

4.12 Stalemate 僵局

If a stalemate occurs the original breaker of the rack will break again. (See1.12Stalemate) 如果发生僵局,由原开球选手重新开球。(参考1.12僵局)

5. Definitions Used in the Rules 名词解释

The following definitions apply throughout these rules. 以下对于术语的解释在本规则所有部分都适用。

5.1 Parts of the Table球台示意图

The following definitions of parts of the table refer to the accompanying diagram.以下Some details of exact size and placement are in the WPA Equipment Specifications. 对球台各部分的定义请参考附图。对于一些尺寸细节以及摆放方式可参考《WPA器材规格》。

The table is comprised of rails, cushions, a playing surface and pockets. The foot end of the table is where the object balls usually begin, while the head end is where the cue ball usually begins.球台包括扶手,库边,球台表面及球袋。开局时目标球放置的那端为球台的底端,而开局时母球放置的这端称为顶端。

Behind the head string is the area between the head rail and the head string, not including the head string.开球线后是指顶端库边与开球线中间的这块区域,不包括开球线本身。

The cushions, tops of the rails, pockets and pocket liners are parts of the rails.库边,扶手顶端表面,球袋和球袋袋口边沿都属于扶手的组成部分。

There are four “strings” on the playing surface as shown in the diagram:如图所示,球台表面有四条“虚拟”线。

the long string down the center of the table;纵线与台面长端平行,与台面中心点相交。

the head string bounding the quarter of the table closest to the head rail;头线(开球线)离顶库距离是球台表面长端长度的1/4。

the foot string bounding the quarter of the table closest to the foot rail; and脚线离底库的距离是球台表面长端长度的1/4。

the center string between the two side pockets.中线是两个中袋的中心点连线。

These lines are only marked as mentioned below.是否将这些线实际画在台面上,下文会提到。

The rails may have inlays referred to as diamonds or sights which mark 1/4th of the width and 1/8th of the length of the table measured from nose to nose on the cushions.球台扶手上可能会有内嵌的记号,通常称为颗星点或瞄准点。这些记号在球台的短边上有三颗,将短边分为等距离四份,在球台的长边上有七颗,将长边分为等距离八份。

On the playing surface, which is the flat, cloth-covered part of the table, the following will be marked if they are used in the game being played:球台表面平整,覆以台布。根据比赛需要,在台面上可画有如下标记:

the foot spot, where the foot string and the long string meet;脚点(置球点),即脚线与纵线的交点。

the head spot, where the head string and the long string meet;头点,即头线(开球线)与纵线的交点。

the center spot, where the center string and the long string meet;中点,即中线与纵线的交点

the head string;头线(开球线)

the long string between the foot spot and the foot rail; and脚点起作一条垂直于底库的直线

the triangle, either in outline or by alignment marks depending on the game.三角框标记,根据项目的不同,可画三角形的轮廓或者仅仅是关键点。

5.2 Shot 击球

A shot begins when the tip contacts the cue ball due to a forward stroke motion of the cue stick. A shot ends when all balls in play have stopped moving and spinning. A shot is said to be legal if the shooter did not foul during the shot. 皮头因球杆向前的击打动作而触碰到母球,标志着一次击球的开始。当台面上所有球都静止时,一次击球完成。如果在此过程中击球选手没有犯规,则该次击球为合法击球。

5.3 Ball Pocketed 球入袋

A ball is pocketed if it comes to rest in a pocket below the playing surface or enters the ball return system. A ball near the brink of a pocket partly supported by another ball is considered pocketed if removal of the supporting ball would cause the ball to fall into the pocket. 如果一颗球进入并停留在球袋中或进入回球系统,则视为此球入袋。当一颗球因被其它球撑住而停留在袋口边缘时,如果拿走支撑球会造成球入袋,则视为此球入袋。

If a ball stops near the edge of a pocket, and remains apparently motionless for five seconds, it is not considered pocketed if it later falls into the pocket by itself. See 1.7Balls Settlingfor other details. During that five second period, the referee should ensure that no other shot is taken. An object ball that rebounds from a pocket back onto the playing surface is not a pocketed ball. If the cue ball contacts an already pocketed ball, the cue ball will be considered pocketed whether it rebounds from the pocket or not. The referee will remove pocketed object balls from full or nearly full pockets, but it is the shooter’s responsibility to see that this duty is performed. 如果一颗球停留在袋口边缘,并且保持明显不动超过5秒,那么即使后来其掉入袋中也不视为入袋。具体细节参考1.7球自行移动。裁判应阻止选手在这五秒时间里继续击打。如果目标球从球袋里弹回台面,将不被视为已入袋。如果母球触碰了已经入袋的球,则无论是否发生反弹,母球一律视为已入袋。裁判会将已入袋球从已满或将满的球袋中拿走。但是,一旦因球袋已满或将满而造成问题,责任依然归于击球选手。

5.4 Driven to a Rail 球碰库

A ball is said to be driven to a rail if it is not touching that rail and then touches that rail. A ball touching a rail at the start of a shot (said to be “frozen” to the rail) is not considered driven to that rail unless it leaves the rail and returns. A ball that is pocketed or driven off the table is also considered to have been driven to a rail. A ball is assumed not to be frozen to any rail unless it is declared frozen by the referee, the shooter, or the opponent. See also Regulation 28Calling Frozen Balls. 球碰库是指球在没有贴库的情况下被撞击碰到库边。如果在一次击球开始前球处于贴库状态,除非在击球过程中该球离开库边并再次碰库,否则不认为该球已碰库。如果一个球入袋或者离开台面,则视为该球已碰库。一颗球若没有被裁判、击球选手或者对手指明,视为其未处于贴库状态。请同时参考通则28对贴球和贴库球的宣告

5.5 Driven off the Table 球离开台面

A ball is considered driven off the table if it comes to rest other than on the playing surface but is not pocketed. A ball is also considered driven off the table if it would have been driven off the table except for striking an object such as a light fixture, piece of chalk or a player which causes it to return to the table. 如果一次击球后球既没有入袋,也没有停留在台面上,则视为该球离开台面。如果球本来会离开台面,但是由于碰到其它诸如照明设施、巧粉或者球员身体等造成其回到台面,则依然视其为离开台面。

A ball that contacts the top of the rail is not considered to have been driven off the table if it returns to the playing surface or enters a pocket. 如果球仅仅是碰了扶手上方区域而回到台面上或是掉入球袋中,此球不视为离开台面。

5.6 Scratch 母球入袋(Scratch)

A shot on which the cue ball is pocketed is called a scratch. Scratch指击球过程中母球入袋。

5.7 Cue Ball 母球

The cue ball is the ball that is struck by the shooter at the beginning of a shot. It is traditionally white, but may be marked by a logo or spots. In pocket billiard games, a single cue ball is used by both players. 母球是每一次击球时选手用球杆直接击打的那个球。它一般是白色,球上也可能标有商标或是标识点。落袋项目里双方球员共用同一母球。

5.8 Object Balls 目标球

The object balls are struck by the cue ball with the usual intent of driving them into pockets. They are typically numbered from one to the number of balls used in the game. Colors and markings of the object balls are covered under the WPA Equipment Specifications. 目标球是比赛中被母球撞击的球。撞击的通常目的是使其入袋。在比赛中,它们一般是从1号到特定号码的球。目标球的颜色和花纹必须符合WPA的器材规格规定。

5.9 Set 节

In some matches, the match is divided into parts called sets, with a certain number of sets won required to win the match. In turn, a certain number of points or racks won is required to win each set. 在有的比赛里,一场比赛分为好几部分,这称为节。赢得指定节数方能赢得比赛。同时,赢得指定局数或分数方能赢下一节比赛。

5.10 Rack 摆球架/球堆/局

The rack is the framing device, typically triangular, used to arrange the object balls for the break shot at the start of the game. It also refers to the group of balls so arranged. To rack the object balls is to group them with the rack. A rack is also a portion of a match played with a single rack of object balls. Some games, such as nine ball, are scored at one point per rack. Rack在这里是多义词。它既可以指摆球架,即每局球开始前用来摆放目标球的摆球工具,其通常形状是三角形。它也可以指用摆球架摆起来的这个球堆。它还可以指一局球,即从摆球开始,到下一次摆球之前的那段比赛。有的项目诸如九球,计分方式是赢得一局获得一分。

5.11 Break 开球

A break shot is the opening shot of a match or rack, depending on the game. It happens when the object balls have been racked and the cue ball is played from behind the head string usually with the intent of breaking the rack apart. 开球是一场比赛或一局比赛(依项目不同而定)里的第一次击球。其定义是指在所有目标球摆放完毕后母球从线后击打,通常目的是将球堆打散的这次击球。

5.12 Inning 击球轮次

An inning is a player’s turn at the table. It begins when it is legal for him to take a shot, and ends at the end of a shot when it is no longer legal for him to take a shot. In some games a player may choose not to come to the table in certain situations when play would normally pass to him, and then the player remaining at the table continues the inning (e.g. a push-out at nine ball). The player whose turn it is to play is called the “shooter.”Innning是指球员的击球轮次。当球员可以开始合法击球时,他的击球轮次开始。当球员不再能合法击球时,他的击球轮次结束。在一些项目中当选手获得击球权时可选择放弃(例如,美式9球比赛里对手击打推杆时),这样留在台面上的选手继续他的击球轮。处于击球轮中的选手称为“击球选手”。

5.13 Position of Balls 球的位置

The position of a ball is determined by the projection of its center vertically downward onto the playing surface. A ball is said to be placed on a line or spot when its center is placed directly over that line or spot. 一个球所处的位置由其中心点在球台上的垂直投影位置决定。球被摆在线上或者点位上是指其中心点处于线或点位的正上方。

5.14 Re-spotting Balls 重置球到点位

In some games, object balls are required to be placed on the playing surface other than when forming a new rack. They are said to be re-spotted when they are so placed. See 1.4Spotting Balls.在一些项目中,有时目标球须被放回到台面点位而不是重新开一局。这个动作称为重置球到点位。参考1.4置球到点位。

5.15 Restoring a Position 恢复原位

If the balls are disturbed, the rules of the game may require them to be replaced where they were. The referee will replace the balls to their original position as accurately as possible. 当球的位置受到干扰而变动时,一些项目的规则可能要求将球摆回原位。裁判会尽可能精确地将球摆回原来的位置。

5.16 Jump Shot 跳球

A jump shot is one in which the cue ball is made to go over an intervening obstacle such as an object ball or part of the cushion. Whether such a shot is legal depends on how it is accomplished and the intention of the shooter. Usually a legal jump shot is played by elevating the cue stick and driving the cue ball down into the playing surface from which it rebounds.跳球指的是使母球跳起并越过障碍球或库边而击打到目标球。跳球的合法与否取决于选手的意图以及完成的过程。通常来说,选手将球杆尾部抬起向下击打母球二分之一以上部分而使其从台面弹起是一次合法跳球。

5.17 Safety Shot 安全击打

A shot is said to be a safety shot if the game in play is a call shot game and the shooter declared the shot to the referee or his opponent to be a “safety” before the shot. Play passes to the other player at the end of a safety shot. 在采用指球定袋规则的项目里,如果击球选手在击打前告诉裁判或者对手“安全击打(Safety)”,那么这次击打称为安全击打。下一杆击球权将交给对手。

5.18 Miscue 滑杆

A miscue occurs when the cue tip slides off the cue ball possibly due to a contact that is too eccentric or to insufficient chalk on the tip. It is usually accompanied by a sharp sound and evidenced by a discoloration of the tip. Although some miscues involve contact of the side of the cue stick with the cue ball, unless such contact is clearly visible, it is assumed not to have occurred. A scoop shot, in which the cue tip contacts the playing surface and the cue ball at the same time and this causes the cue ball to rise off the cloth, is treated like a miscue. Note that intentional miscues are covered by 6.17Unsportsmanlike Conduct c). 击打时杆头从母球上滑开形成滑杆。造成滑杆的原因可能是杆头接触母球的点过于偏离球的中心,或是杆头上擦的巧粉不够。滑杆产生的同时通常会伴有尖锐的声音,还会看到皮头部分有脱色。虽然有时候滑杆产生时球杆的侧面会碰到母球,但除非这个现象非常明显可见,否则假设其并未发生。如果击球时杆头同时碰到母球和台面造成母球从台面跳起,这种情况处理方式与滑杆相同。蓄意造成滑杆属于违背体育精神的行为,请参考6.17违背体育精神的行为c)。

6. Fouls犯规

The following actions are fouls at pool when included in the specific rules of the game being played. If several fouls occur on one shot, only the most serious one is enforced. If a foul is not called before the next shot begins, the foul is assumed not to have happened. 当下列条目被引用到相应项目规则里时,该条目描述的行为在该项目里属于犯规。如果在一次击球中出现了多个犯规行为,则仅按最严重的那个予以判罚。如果在下一次出杆前裁判未宣判犯规,则假设没有发生犯规。

6.1 Cue Ball Scratch or off the Table 母球入袋或离开球台

If the cue ball is pocketed or driven off the table, the shot is a foul. See 5.3Ball Pocketed and 5.5Driven off the Table. 如果母球入袋或离开球台,则此次击球犯规。参考5.3球入袋和5.5球离开台面。

6.2 Wrong Ball First 母球先接触非法球

In those games which require the first object ball struck to be a particular ball or one of a group of balls, it is a foul for the cue ball to first contact any other ball. 有的项目规定了母球首先碰撞的目标球必须是某特定球或属于特定球组的球,若母球首先碰到的是别的球就是犯规。

6.3 No Rail after Contact 碰撞后无球碰库

If no ball is pocketed on a shot, the cue ball must contact an object ball, and after that contact at least one ball (cue ball or any object ball) must be driven to a rail, or the shot is a foul. (See 5.4Driven to a Rail) 如果一次击球没有造成进球,那么母球在碰撞目标球后须至少有一个球(母球或目标球)碰库,否则这次击球犯规。(参考5.4球碰库的定义)

6.4 No Foot on Floor 击球瞬间双脚离地

If the shooter does not have at least one foot touching the floor at the instant the tip contacts the cue ball, the shot is a foul. 在皮头接触母球的瞬间击球选手双脚都离开地面是犯规。

6.5 Ball Driven off the Table 球离开台面

It is a foul to drive an object ball off the table. Whether that ball is spotted depends on the rules of the game. (See 5.5Driven off the Table) 将目标球打离台面是犯规。被打离的球是否重置回点位根据该项目规则而定。(参考5.5Driven off the Table 球离开台面)

6.6 Touched Ball 非法触碰球

It is a foul to touch, move or change the path of any object ball except by the normal ball-to-ball contacts during shots. It is a foul to touch, move or change the path of the cue ball except when it is in hand or by the normal tip-to-ball forward stroke contact of a shot. The shooter is responsible for the equipment he controls at the table, such as chalk, bridges, clothing, his hair, parts of his body, and the cue ball when it is in hand, that may be involved in such fouls. If such a foul is accidental, it is a standard foul, but if it is intentional, it is 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct. 除了击球过程中正常的球与球碰撞外,任何发生在目标球上的触碰、移动和改变其运行线路的行为都是犯规。除了击球过程中正常的皮头击打母球,以及手中球状态外,任何发生在母球上的触碰、移动和改变运行线路的行为也都是犯规。球员须对使用的器材或自身肢体(例如巧粉、架杆、头发、衣物、手中球状态下的母球等)所造成的此类犯规负责。如果非法触碰球的行为是无意识的,仅仅是一般犯规。如果是蓄意为之,则视为违背体育精神的行为。

6.7 Double Hit / Frozen Balls 双击/贴球

If the cue stick contacts the cue ball more than once on a shot, the shot is a foul. If the cue ball is close to but not touching an object ball and the cue tip is still on the cue ball when the cue ball contacts that object ball, the shot is a foul. If the cue ball is very close to an object ball, and the shooter barely grazes that object ball on the shot, the shot is assumed not to violate the first paragraph of this rule, even though the tip is arguably still on the cue ball when ball-ball contact is made. 如果球杆在击球时碰触母球超过一次,即为犯规。当母球与目标球很近但不相贴时,如果母球接触目标球的那一刻杆头依然在母球上,该击球即为犯规。如果母球十分接近目标球,而选手出杆仅仅使母球轻轻擦到了目标球,那么即使母球与目标球接触时杆头可能还在母球上,此次击球也不犯规。

However, if the cue ball is touching an object ball at the start of the shot, it is legal to shoot towards or partly into that ball (provided it is a legal target within the rules of the game) and if the object ball is moved by such a shot, it is considered to have been contacted by the cue ball. (Even though it may be legal to shoot towards such a touching or “frozen” ball, care must be taken not to violate the rules in the first paragraph if there are additional balls close by.) 然而,如果在击球前母球与目标球相贴,那么选手向整颗球或部分球的方向出杆是合法的(当然那颗球也必须是合法目标球)。如果这样击球造成了目标球的移动,则认为母球已经碰撞了该目标球。(虽然朝相贴球方向击打是合法的,但是如果附近有其它球,球员要注意不能违反本条规则第一段中的规定)

The cue ball is assumed not to be touching any ball unless it is declared touching by the referee or opponent. It is the shooter’s responsibility to get the declaration before the shot. Playing away from a frozen ball does not constitute having hit that ball unless specified in the rules of the game.除非由裁判宣告了或由对手指出了贴球,否则一律假设母球不与任何目标球相贴。在击打之前要求裁判宣告贴球是击球选手的责任。将母球从相贴的球上打离,并不代表母球已经击中该相贴球,除非个别项目有特殊的规定。

6.8 Push Shot 推击

It is a foul to prolong tip-to-cue-ball contact beyond that seen in normal shots. 皮头与母球持续接触超过合理的时间是犯规。

6.9 Balls Still Moving 球未静止就击球

It is a foul to begin a shot while any ball in play is moving or spinning. 当台面上还有球在移动或旋转时就进行击球是犯规。

6.10 Bad Cue Ball Placement 母球放置位置错误

When the cue ball is in hand and restricted to the area behind the head string, it is a foul to play the cue ball from on or below the head string. If the shooter is uncertain whether the cue ball has been placed behind the head string, he may ask the referee for a determination. 当规则要求击打线后手中球时,如果将母球放在开球线上或是开球区外击打是犯规。如果击球选手不确定母球是否已经放置在开球线后,他可以要求裁判进行判定。

6.11 Bad Play from Behind the Head String 线后球的非法击打

When the cue ball is in hand behind the head string, and the first ball the cue ball contacts is also behind the head string, the shot is a foul unless the cue ball crosses the head string before that contact. If such a shot is intentional, it is unsportsmanlike conduct. 当击打线后手中球时,如果母球首次碰撞的目标球也在线后,则该次击球犯规,除非母球先穿越了开球线再折返发生碰撞。如果这样的犯规是故意为之,视为违背体育精神的行为。

The cue ball must either cross the head string or contact a ball in front of or on the head string or the shot is a foul, and the cue ball is in hand for the following player according to the rules of the specific game. If such shot is intentional, it is also unsportsmanlike conduct. 在击打线后手中球时,母球必须先穿越开球线、或者击中开球线上的目标球、或者击中开球线前方的目标球,否则这次击球是犯规。根据特定项目的规则,犯规后对方将获得手中球的机会。如果这样的犯规是故意为之,同样视为违背体育精神的行为。

6.12 Cue Stick on the Table 球杆置于桌面

If the shooter uses his cue stick in order to align a shot by placing it on the table without having a hand on the stick, it is a foul. 击球选手以瞄准为目的将球杆放在桌上并且双手都离开球杆是犯规。

6.13 Playing out of Turn 上场击球顺序错误

It is a standard foul to unintentionally play out of turn. Normally, the balls will be played from the position left by the mistaken play. If a player intentionally plays out of turn, it should be treated like 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct. 如果无意中弄错了上场击球顺序,是一般犯规。在发生这样的犯规后,通常做法是目标球位置不变,比赛继续。如果是蓄意而为之,应视为违背体育精神的行为。

6.14 Three Consecutive Fouls 三次连续犯规

If a player fouls three times without making an intervening legal shot, it is a serious foul. In games scored by the rack, such as nine ball, the fouls must be in a single rack. Some games such as eight ball do not include this rule. 如果选手犯规三次,且在这些犯规之间没有一次合法击球,视为一次严重犯规。在按局计算的项目例如9号球比赛里,三次犯规须在同一局发生才算。而其它项目例如8号球比赛则没有这条规则。

The referee must warn a shooter who is on two fouls when he comes to the table that he is on two fouls. Otherwise a possible third foul will be considered to be only the second. 在已连续犯规两次的球员上台击球前,裁判员必须警告该球员,告知其已经连续两次犯规。否则即使发生了第三次犯规,依然只能算作第二次犯规。

6.15 Slow Play 击球过慢

If the referee feels that a player is playing too slowly, he may advise that player to speed up his play. If the player does not speed up, the referee may impose a shot clock on that match that applies to both players. If the shooter exceeds the time limit specified for the tournament, a standard foul will be called and the incoming player is rewarded according to the rules applicable to the game being played. (Rule 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct may also apply.) 在不限制单杆击球时间的比赛中,如果裁判认为一名球员击球过慢,他可以提醒球员加快击球速度。如果情况没有改善,裁判可在那场比赛中对双方球员都采用单杆限时的办法。如果选手击球时间超过了赛事的规定,判一次一般犯规,接下来则按各项目规定的方法处理。

6.16 Ball Rack Template Foul 摆球纸犯规

It is a foul when a Ball Rack Template, removed from the playing surface, interferes with the game i.e. if the template is lying on the rail and a ball (cue or object ball) touches the template that is lying on the rail.如果已经移除的摆球纸影响到比赛,这是一次犯规。比方说,球员把摆球纸放在了库边扶手上,并且有球(母球或者目标球)触碰了该摆球纸。

6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct 违背体育精神的行为

The normal penalty for unsportsmanlike conduct is the same as for a serious foul, but the referee may impose a penalty depending on his judgment of the conduct. Among other penalties possible are a warning; a standard-foul penalty, which will count as part of a three-foul sequence if applicable; a serious-foul penalty; loss of a rack, set or match; ejection from the competition possibly with forfeiture of all prizes, trophies and standings points.对违背体育精神行为,通常将其等同于一次严重犯规来判罚。但是,裁判可按照其对犯规行为的判断而调整判罚。判罚可以是一次警告、一次标准犯规(并记入“连续三次犯规”之内)、一次严重犯规、输掉该局、轮或比赛,取消比赛资格并且可能同时取消名次,奖章和排名积分等。

Unsportsmanlike conduct is any intentional behavior that brings disrepute to the sport or which disrupts or changes the game to the extent that it cannot be played fairly. It includes违背体育精神的行为是指任何蓄意玷污体育精神,破坏或改变公平竞赛原则的行为。这包括

a) distracting the opponent; 干扰对手;

b) changing the position of the balls in play other than by a shot; 除了正常击球以外,改变台面上球的位置;

c) playing a shot by intentionally miscuing; 故意打出滑杆;

d) continuing to play after a foul has been called or play has been suspended; 在裁判已经宣布犯规或者中断比赛的情况下继续击球;

e) practicing during a match; 在一场比赛的进行期间练球;

f) marking the table; 在球台上做标记;

g) delay of the game; and 故意拖延时间;

h) using equipment inappropriately. 以不恰当的方式使用器材。